I can not accept the idea that the restrainer is Satan. Why would Satan want to hold back evil???? No sir, that makes no sense at all to me. As for men as you have listed, I can not see anyone able to hold back lawlessness. IMO opinion it has to be the Holy Spirit and anyone is welcome to disagree with that opinion. As I look at the world today, lawlessness is rampant. Even now with the indwelling of the Holy Spirit the world is falling apart from lawlessness. Just think how it will be if there is no Holy Spirit present on the earth. He will be on a differant mission during thr tribulation period after the church is removed. Now the Spirit of God is sealing us unto the day of redemption when He will present us to the Lord Jesus Christ. If He did not do that, we would never make it. IMO there will be NO believers left on this earth after the Rapture. Now remember, the church DOES NOT SAVE ANYONE! It is the Holy Spirit who convicts and saves and seals the believer. Now as for the 144,000. The 144,000 of chapter 7 is the same ones in chapter 14. I know that there are some problems connected with that view but I still believe that it is the best understanding.They are the sealed, Jewish virgin men who Jesus started out with and He came through the Tribulation not losing a single one. What is that a picture of........Once saved always saved!!!!! IMO, since the Holy Spirit is not indwelling believers during the Tribulation there is then only one way to be saved and it has 3 points. 1) Meet/contact one of the 144,000 Jewish virgin men. 2) accept Christ as they give the gosple to the lost man 3) and then refuse the mark of the beast.