(I've used the NKJ version just for ease of understanding in this post). Are all rulers appointed by God? Romans 13:1 "Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. 2 Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves." This one says they are, because we have no doubt Obama (for example) is someone with authority/power/however you want to translate ὑπερεχούσαις. Romans 13:5 "Therefore you must be subject, not only because of wrath but also for conscience’ sake. 6 For because of this you also pay taxes, for they are God’s ministers attending continually to this very thing. 7 Render therefore to all their due: taxes to whom taxes are due..." This passage seems to claim that anyone whom you have to pay taxes to is an authority (among others excerpted about whom I don't want to talk about right now). It goes as far as saying that those who demand taxes are God's ministers. John 19:10 "Then Pilate said to Him, “Are You not speaking to me? Do You not know that I have power to crucify You, and power to release You?” 11 Jesus answered,“You could have no power at all against Me unless it had been given you from above..."" In this passage Jesus affirms (not explicitly, but I think clearly enough for anyone to see) that Pilate does have authority given by God. So, do all "authorities" get their power from God? I know of a few authorities who I'm sure have collected taxes whom many people wouldn't like to think got their authority from God, like Stalin, who was even an atheist.